Settlements, where no more than 20 thousand inhabitants, can be translated into biofuels. Under biofuels may refer to as biodiesel and biogas. Ukraine has all the prerequisites to and biodiesel, and biogas. For the first required oilseeds, which are still actively cultivated in Ukraine, and for the second - any biomass, which is also there in abundance. Of course, the cost of biogas now will be much higher than natural. But more to build biogas plants - the cheaper they will be produced gas. And most importantly - biogas "well" will never be exhausted.
Ukraine, with its huge reserves of coal, can be produced from a so-called synthesis gas (LFG). Synthesis gas can be used on both the local and the national level. With this investment only at the stage of construction of the relevant industries, and further gas synthesized from coal is twice cheaper than natural. And here it is worth remembering that for many years the authorities have paid from the state budget subsidies Donetsk miners as coal mining was economically unprofitable. And now these grants will find meaning.
Another usage of coal: Use vodnougolnogo fuel. Experts estimate that it will reduce the cost of thermal energy by 50%. Experiments on the implementation of such technology were carried out in the USSR in the 1980s and really showed its effectiveness, but for some unknown reason were stopped.
It is proposed to increase its own production of energy through deep drilling. In recent years only in the Dnieper-Donets oil and gas field was discovered 43 oil and gas fields. However, they are located at a depth of 5 kilometer more, so the production cost of their production is quite high - required considerable investment and, as a minimum, the world in those parts.
For the accumulation of heat in the battery heating system based on thermal batteries are encouraged to use electricity at night, which at night is cheaper.
Buying on the world market of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Its main distributors - Qatar, Norway and, more recently, the United States. LNG market price - $ 380 per 1 thousand cubic meters, while Moscow demands from Kiev for gas "from the pipe" $ 485. However, to use liquefied gas, Ukraine will have to build one of its ports dedicated terminal regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG terminal). And this, again, we need investment.
Reverse Russian gas supplies from Europe. The most controversial proposal because frankly against Russia. So it's a political proposal. In June this year the reverse gas from Poland and Hungary was 315.8 million cubic meters. m, however, according to experts, by year-end reverse supply could increase to 1.2 billion cubic meters per month. Prime Minister Yatsenyuk said in mid-June that the reverse of Europe could reach 15 billion cubic meters per year. But not the fact that it will be ready to go to the Europeans themselves.
Use of synthetic natural gas (SNG), i.e. fuel, which is obtained by mixing air with the gas or gas mixture which is comparable methane. The use of SNG imports could decline by 2 billion cubic meters per year. Only the technology in Ukrainian conditions not sufficiently worked out.
There are nuclear power and shale gaz.Ukraina has every opportunity to fully develop their own nuclear power. Now nuclear power plants provide nearly 50% of total electricity generation in Ukraine. Operates 15 reactors - the country is in fifth place in Europe. While operating power units of Ukrainian underutilized. Thus, Zaporizhzhya of six units are four, one stands in cold reserve, on the other runs scheduled maintenance. Simply running these facilities into operation, Ukraine is able to increase the share of nuclear power in the energy mix to 60%. And the implementation of the program of construction of new nuclear power units share in the total energy of Ukraine reaches 70-90%.
After the closure of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine remained four operating nuclear power plants, and has its own uranium deposits. Resuscitation occurs projects creating nuclear fuel in Ukraine with its own raw materials, in 2010 in Ukraine was adopted large-scale program of nuclear power development. It provides, in particular, the construction of a plant for the production of fuel elements for the reactor, centralized repository for spent nuclear fuel and 11 new reactors. The cost of building new reactors, according to the program is $ 22.5 billion total for the development of Ukrainian nuclear power by 2030 is planned to spend more than $ 32.5 billion
Look impressive ambitions of Ukraine concerning shale gas and shale oil well. It is the active development of oil shale reserves of hydrocarbons allowed the U.S. just a couple of years to become the world leader in oil and gas production. In the first half of this year, the U.S. produced more than 11.5 million barrels of oil and condensate per day (data Merrill Lynch). For comparison, Saudi Arabia in this period produced at least 11.5 million barrels. / Day, Russia - about 11 million bbl. / Day.
This success enabled the Americans to not only reduce energy prices in the domestic market, but also to turn from an importer to an exporter of hydrocarbons. Already, the U.S. is preparing to export liquefied natural gas.
Now the U.S. wants to learn from the experience of Ukraine. And to develop Ukrainian shale gas is planned to involve European and American investment and American capitals same technology.
Experts note that the decline in gas consumption is directly related to the fall in industrial production, particularly in the eastern regions of the country. In 2014, Ukraine plans to import 25-27 billion cubic meters of gas, but due to a conflict with "Gazprom" on these plans can put a cross. On the other hand, the military conflict in the east of the country has led to a halt there of many industries that will also reduce the need for energy in Ukraine.
The proposed measures, especially the construction of the LNG terminal, allow two to three years to replace 20% to 30% of total gas consumption (10-15 bcm). And within five to seven years can establish commercial production of shale gas. But first you need to restore the full authority over the eastern regions of Kiev, where these deposits and concentrated.