The search for new routes for Russian energy

By Daniel Rozanov

Russian power is separated from the centers of European consumption of a ring of countries that control the transport routes of Russian and Central Asian exports. Historically, the main routes of transmission of natural gas ex-USSR passed through Ukraine. In the separation of the state having a variety of political tensions between Russia and Ukraine, and the temptation to substitute the very real and objective contradictions of the distribution of revenue from gas power purely subjective approach. First of all, the effects of the transition of the Crimean peninsula under Russian jurisdiction.


Meanwhile, the alternative is: either negotiate with transit countries, or find alternative routes for Russian energy. In the Baltic bypass route – a “Nord Stream”, which is a substitute route to Europe under the Baltic Sea, bypassing Ukraine and Poland. The first line (27.5 billion m3 / year) is laid. The raw material base of the gas pipeline offshore Shtokman field is determined after the development.


Obvious classification in relation to energy resources in Eastern Europe, primarily in oil and natural gas: the country-exporter of Romania; countries which do not depend (weakly dependent) on Russian supplies – Turkey and Bulgaria; and all other transit countries through which the land corridors for transportation of oil and natural gas.


The major exporter of oil and gas in favor Russia. The gas transportation system of the CIS countries in terms of total yield of about half (77.7 thousand. Km of gas pipelines against 150.2 thousand. Km) on the power of the Russian gas transport system. However, almost all of these countries have the main gas pipelines through which the gas is pumped from the field to consumers in third countries.


Without the use of the gas transportation system of the CIS countries Russia deprives himself of most of the foreign market. This transit potential explains the interest in it. Transit countries differ in their relation to energy flows. Ukraine, Romania and Belarus optimum performance transport routes of Russian gas to Eastern and Central Europe. Turkey, Georgia and Bulgaria are now forming new corridors for the transport of oil and gas.


The total length of gas pipelines in the USSR by 1970 reached 70 thousand. Km. Powerful gas mains cost-effective high, so the trend was aimed at increasing their diameter. If, 1968, the maximum diameter of the pipes used in the United States, was 1067 mm, USSR – 1420 mm in average diameter USSR – 674 mm, in U.S. – 410 mm. Construction of gas required gas fields with an annual gas production 50-100 billion cubic meters. M. However, it should be noted that the pace of development of the main transport of gas and the development of new deposits decreased in the last decade, for example, the gas pipeline Yamal-Europe only two areas 184 km in length were introduced in 1996-2002.


Gas power in Ukraine are to “Gazprom” and independent interest: domestic gas consumption in Ukraine is about 75 billion cubic meters annually. m. In the energy balance of the country’s gas accounts for 41%. Of the total consumption in the industrial facilities account for about 60%. The remaining 40% – the share of the population and household consumers. The total length of gas pipelines in Ukraine is 283.2 thousand km, of which 246.1 thousand kilometers -.. Distribution network and 37.1 thous. Km – long-distance pipelines, including 14 thous. Km – the largest-diameter pipes (1020-1420 mm ). The system combines the 72 compression stations (122 compressor shops) and 13 underground storage facilities with the largest in Europe after Russia, an active volume of gas – more than 32 billion cubic meters. m, or 21.3% of the pan-European active capacity. Ukrainian gas pipelines are connected to the backbone networks of neighboring countries: Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Romania, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia. system bandwidth at the input of 290 billion cubic meters. m per year, at the output – 175 billion cubic meters. m. A Ukrainian gas pipeline system of transit of Russian gas to Europe, as well as in the southern regions of Russia. In 2007, through the Ukrainian gas pipelines 120 billion was pumped into Europe cu. meters of Russian gas.


The main transit countries, through which Russian gas is delivered to consumers, in addition to Ukraine include Belarus and Georgia. Through them delivered about 225 billion cubic meters. meters of gas. That is why the “Gazprom” to ensure that supplies are interested in establishing control over the gas transportation systems of these countries. Ukraine became lower purchases of gas from “Gazprom”, preferring to buy Russian gas at a higher price in European companies, because the West supports Ukraine Credit. At the same time due to lower industrial production and domestic demand, gas consumption in Ukraine reduced.


The capacity of transit through Poland, Ukraine and Romania can provide the EU planned delivery of 200 billion m3 / year, but “Gazprom” intends to bring them up to 318 billion m3 / year – 30% of European consumption (EU Energy Directive planned by the Russian GHG import 25% consumption).


Russia decade had the advantage of cost and ease of transport of natural gas over its competitors on the European market – Qatar (23.4% of world reserves) and Algeria (13.8%). If you will operate extended bypass pipelines on the seabed, it is an economic advantage will be very blurry. During seven years of operation, the “Blue Stream” through the Black Sea the federal budget did not get 3.8 billion dollars., While ground gas pipeline Yamal-Europe brought to $ 14.5 billion. Tax deductions. Thus, a change in the route of Russian gas supplies to expand economic niche for natural gas competitor countries, but particularly for LNG applications.


Until recently, Ukraine was to “Gazprom” one of the largest markets. According to analysts of the Savings Bank, as recently as 2011, the company delivered 44.8 billion cubic meters to Ukraine. meters of gas. In the past year – 6.2 billion since the beginning of this year, Kiev stopped to buy gas from Russia directly. Shipments to European countries and Turkey, in the meantime, for 10 years has not changed: 158 billion cubic meters. m last year against 154 billion cubic meters. m in 2005.






April 2016