The possibility of gas supplies from different directions and in various forms continues to be discussed at various international forums. Today we are talking not only about pipeline, but also liquefied gas for Europe. Various countries of the world can participate in its deliveries.
Gas causes acute political crises and even military clashes, as the Syrian crisis, in particular, demonstrates.
Along with Russia, Qatar and Algeria are among the main suppliers of blue fuel to the European market. But new suppliers from the Middle East and Africa are also entering the arena. Potential gas suppliers to Europe include the countries of the Caspian basin. The recent signing of a treaty regulating the status of the Caspian Sea opens up fundamental opportunities for filling the existing gas pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey with additional quantities of gas from the Turkmen and, possibly, Iranian fields. In addition, technologies for the extraction of methane hydrate in seas, oceans and lakes in a frozen state have been created in Japan and China. In particular on Lake Baikal. The reserves of methane hydrate along with shale gas significantly expand the gas supply for European consumers.
The contradictions that have arisen are attributed to the attempts of the President Donald Trump to redirect European consumers to liquefied gas (LNG) from the United States. Some experts analyze the competitiveness of liquefied gas from the United States and Russian pipeline gas and argue that, at the current level of technology for producing and organizing supplies, American LNG remains insufficiently competitive compared to Russian gas in the European market. At the same time, the adoption of political decisions to restrict the supply of Russian gas may lead to an increase in gas prices on the European market, which will make American LNG quite competitive. Such political decisions to artificially restrict the consumption of Russian gas, as is known, were taken in Lithuania.
This takes into account modern routes of supply of pipeline gas to Europe, including those passing through the territory of the states of the former USSR, Algerian and Trans-African gas pipelines. And above all, the state of the Ukrainian gas pipeline system (GTS) and all the problems associated with its use, including the crises of Europe’s gas supply from Russia. All aspects of Russian-Ukrainian gas relations and, as a result, their dead-end development, attempts by the Russian supplier of Gazprom to create bypass routes for gas supplies to Europe are analyzed. This is primarily about such projects as the Nord Stream, the South Stream, the Turkish Stream and the North Stream - 2. The struggle for their implementation continues with political aspects related to their practical implementation.
Analyzed are the issues of using the Third Energy Package in relation to Gazprom and the means created by it in cooperation with European participants for the transportation of blue fuel to Europe. According to a number of experts, it is demonstrated that it is largely aimed at restricting the activities of Gazprom in Europe.
At the same time, special attention is paid to the development of production and supplies of Russian LNG, primarily related to the implementation of projects by Novatek, and in this regard, the possibilities of supplying Europe with Russian LNG under global warming are assessed. After all, climate change creates additional opportunities for Russian LNG suppliers, since it allows using the Northern Sea Route free of ice for this purpose.