By Arthur Dunn

For the second year in a row spending on research and innovation in China exceed 2% of China's GDP. Such data are contained in the statistical summary, prepared jointly by the State Statistical Office, Ministry of Science and the Ministry of Finance of the China.


Last year, for this purpose, China has spent about 1.3 trillion yuan - an increase of almost 10% compared with 2013 year. Most of that amount - about 85% - was spent on development activities. Even the order of 11% - investments in applied research, and the rest - in the fundamentals.


Of particular interest is the classification of the sources of financing of scientific research and experimental development (R & D). As follows from the disclosed data, nearly 80% of investments in research and development - investment companies. About 15% - investment research institutes under the governments at different levels. The rest - the cost of higher education institutions.


Spending on R & D in China is growing at the expense of investment companies. Experts indicates the growing role of business as the main source of funding for scientific research.


In Russia, the situation with the financing of R & D is just the opposite. Previously, Analytical Centre under the Government of the Russian Federation issued a report that said: "Much of the spending on R & D funding borne by the state. The share of the federal budget expenditures in domestic expenditure on research and development amounted to 80% in 2010-2012 and 88% - in 2013 ".


At the same time Russia lags well behind China and many other countries in terms of investments in R & D in terms of GDP. In early November, UNESCO published a report on the prospects of world science. And it is reported that in 2013 in Russia, all R & D costs amounted to 1.12% of GDP. For 10 years - from 2003 to 2013 - Russia, even reduced relative to GDP spending on research and innovation. In 2003, the figure was 1.29% of GDP.


For comparison: in 2013 in Germany for this purpose was sent 2.94% of GDP in the US - 2.81%, in China - 2.02%, in Great Britain - 1.63%, in Brazil - 1.21 %. Less than Russia, Turkey investing in research and development - 0.95% of GDP, India - 0.81%, South Africa - 0.76%.


Analytical Center under the Government, referring to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, said that among the world's leading R & D investment in Finland, Israel and Korea, these countries spend on scientific research and development 3.55; 4.2 and 4.36% of GDP respectively.


It became known that Russia and China after lengthy negotiations, signed a contract for the purchase of China's more than 20 Su-35 a total value of $ 24 billion. This is reported by Russian and Chinese press. According to press reports, Russia proudly presents this contract as proof of Russia's success in foreign markets, calling it unprecedented in the history of deliveries of combat aircraft.


The Chinese side, however, refers to the contract otherwise. As explained by Chinese experts, the Su-35 - is a transitional model, China should adopt some of the features of the Su-35 technology in the future to move to the external procurement of necessary spare parts only, but not ready aircraft. In their opinion, although the country and signed the contract, in fact, he is likely to be the last major purchase of Chinese military aircraft.


Perhaps another example of China's export expansion - creating analogue Russian multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) in Belarus with, apparently, the Chinese, not Russian rockets. This is the MLRS "Polonaise", which the trial took place in China.


Experts confirm that the financing system in China is fundamentally different from the Russian. China since the early 2000s moved to a system of financing, in which the main source of investment in the scientific development of enterprises are establishing a close relationship with universities for joint development.


Today, many Chinese universities have a very tight connection with Chinese enterprises, most labs - joint. As an example, Shenyang University of Technology. It develops, including equipment and even components for Chinese satellites.


Thanks to this cooperation, Chinese universities immediately gain an understanding of which way they move: under this cooperation are many masters and postgraduate programs. China, in this case followed the path of the United States and the United Kingdom. There is also a very close relationship between universities and industry. The most famous examples - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale.






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