Known information on gas exploration in the Mediterranean waters of Israel, which intends to fully meet the needs of the country and create the potential for gas exports to southern Europe. Potential natural gas reserves are estimated at Israel shelves 1 trillion cubic meters. m. of natural gas reserves have been explored, and on the shelves of the island of Crete (1.5-3.5 trillion cubic meters. m) and Cyprus (150-230 billion cubic meters. m).
The original route, through which gas is delivered to Europe, has been the world's largest shelf system pipelines. In her gas produced in the oil fields of the North Sea, done in Germany, the UK, France, Belgium - ie Central European countries. In the same region it was oriented system of pipelines from Western Siberia "Yamal-Europe" for the delivery of Russian gas through Russia and transit countries.
In Europe, the south lay a gas pipeline through which gas from fields in Algeria goes to the markets of Italy and Spain.
The length of the deepwater pipeline Greenstream 540 km - from the gas compressor station in the city of Mellitah to the terminal in the Sicilian town of Gela. To the east of Malta pipeline section is laid at a depth of 1127 m (more deep counts only the Russian "Blue Stream", where there are areas at depths up to 2200 m). The pipeline is provided reserves of gas fields in the Sahara desert near the border with Algeria, in 530 km from the sea. The diameter of the pipeline is 810 mm, capacity - 11.8 billion cubic meters. per year. The project cost was $ 6.6 billion.
The gas pipeline from Algeria to Spain. The pipeline has a length of 1620 km (1010 miles), its initial cost was $ 2.3 billion. The capacity of the first was 8.6 billion cubic meters. m per year, further increased to 12 billion cubic meters. m. Unfolds construction of a new pipeline system from Africa and the Middle East.
It is planned to construct a gas pipeline Israel, the Cyprus-Greece length 1,400 km across the Mediterranean; Depth mostly 800 m, maximum depth - 2000 m.
Events January 2009 (Ukraine conflict and "Gazprom") have shown that the vital shield themselves from monopoly suppliers and reduce the influence of the main transit countries for gas consumers in Europe. These objectives are intended to provide more long-term projects, including, in particular, the "Southern Gas Corridor", including several alternative gas supplies to South and Central Europe from the fields in the Caspian Sea countries.
The most significant of them, and because the prospects of having - a "South Stream» (South Stream) length of 2446 km. This Russian-Italian-French-German gas pipeline project, which will run under the Black Sea from Anapa district in the Bulgarian port of Varna. Next two branches pass through the Balkans to Italy and Austria; until their exact routes are not approved. Construction began December 7, 2012, but the end is delayed for political reasons.
The design capacity of the "South Stream" - 63 billion cubic meters. meters of gas per year. The estimated cost of the project - 16 billion euros. Designed four threads at 15.58 billion cubic meters. m, of which the sea - 900 km, depth - up to 2250 m.
Competitor "South Stream" in favor of "Nabucco" - has not yet implemented a gas pipeline 3,300 kilometers from Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan to the EU countries, especially Austria and Southern Germany. The designed capacity - 26-32 billion cubic meters. meters of gas per year. The projected cost of the project -. 7.9 billion dollars to download the "Nabucco" gas pipeline was proposed several fields in Iran ( "South Pars"), Azerbaijan ( "Shah-Deniz"), Turkmenistan ( "Dowletabat") and others.
According to BP's estimates, the real cost of the project is about 14 billion euros; price increase is due to rising raw material prices, in particular for metal pipes. Preparation of the project was conducted in 2002.
Originally scheduled to begin construction in 2011 and be completed by 2014, but the project was postponed several times due to problems with potential gas suppliers. While the launch date of the project moved in 2018.
So, for access to the gas market of southern Europe compete with North Africa and, potentially, Israel, on the one hand, and the south of Russia plus the countries of Central Asia and Iran - on the other.