The problem of non-proliferation still remains to be a complicated international problem. Current war in North African Libya once again has reminded of it. Politicians and experts began remembering, that Muammar Gaddafi intended aforetime for Libya to become a member of the nuclear club. But under powerful pressure of the leading UNO member-states he was forced to refuse of such plans, which in practice helped him to restore relations of Tripoli with world powers and other states of the world. Today, when Libya has found itself under the pressure of the UN sanctions, when NATO member-states lead warfare within its territory, it is even frightful to think what could happen if Gaddafi possessed nuclear weapon. They say, that in this case there could be no intervention of western states into Libya.
It’s been a bit more than a month after Lisbon Summit. NATO Strategic Concept adopted then should have become the prove of gaining a new identity by the Alliance, the sense of its existence in a modern epoch. In this sense due to a number of factors Libyan operation is the first serious challenge of the new NATO concept.
Fist of all, this is still a real challenge to the Alliance security: 300 thousands of refugees, ready to flow into Europe, instability of energy supplies, humanitarian disaster. Secondly, the operation in Libya is another testing of transatlantic solidarity, and which is the most important – the readiness of the member-states to invest resources into warfare gradually unloading the USA from this role. Thirdly, Libya is the way to prove that NATO is viable within the present format and 28 members of the Alliance are able to adopt constructive decisions within limited terms. Fourthly, this is an opportunity to demonstrate a “new face” of NATO – absolute submission for the primacy of the international law (for once in a while everything happens with a direct UN Security Council sanction).
Finally, everybody supposes that Libya is not Afghanistan. The operation will not last long, probably, it would even do without land phase.
The memories of that, Libya could possess nuclear weapon incite fears. We should also remind that during NATO Lisbon Summit there were attempts to disarm within a whole NATO direction.
Foreign Affairs Minister of Germany Guido Westerwelle on the eve of Lisbon meeting claimed: “Disarmament process should be launched within the NATO Summit”. The line of German Minister was about that NATO at the present stage should give clear signals within the sphere of disarmament and armament control. He also noted that the new NATO strategy gives the chance to have a new vision on disarmament issue.
Many experts state that the sentiments similar to the line of Guido Westerwelle become more popular among Europeans. Especially considering democratic events taking place in Japan.
Here we should remind that Germany may completely refuse of American nuclear weapon, located within its lands by 2012 or 2013. Earlier the Federal Republic of Germany declared about the refusal of nuclear weapon, nevertheless, being NATO member-state it will be able to implement the nuclear arsenal of the Alliance in case of defensive war, grounding on the so-called principle of “nuclear participation”.
Let us add that the line of the united Germany towards the refusal of nuclear weapon is defined within international treaty on the final regulation of German issue, as well as principal positions, determining strategic parameters of its foreign policy.
By the way, in course of the last Session of the UN General Assembly in September of 2010, Germany acceded the initiatives of Foreign Ministers of other nine states headed by Japan and Australia, that have set the objective to intensify forces in order to achieve nuclear-free world. Their joint statement specifies: “The only guarantee against a threat and nuclear weapon implementation is its complete destruction”.
Nuclear weapon test have harmed severely the humankind. For example, according to incomplete facts, more than 1 million of Kazakhstan population are affected by radiation. When the crimes of authorities, military men and doctors became public people have demanded to shot-down reservations. Special place within the struggle to stop nuclear testing belongs to the movement “Nevada- Semipalatinsk” under the leadership of a famous poet and public activist O. Sulejmanov.
On August 1991, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev issued the demand to close down nuclear reservations in Semipalatinsk. Except for that, Kazakhstani initiative on proclamation of August 29th International day of opposing nuclear testings was unanimously approved by the 64th Session of the UN General Assembly. Corresponding UN Resolution calls the member-states and the system of the Organization, civil society, scientists and Mass Media to celebrate this international day appropriately. The document confirms the need of more active education and people informing on the consequences of nuclear blasts. First time this day was celebrated on August 29th 2010.
Nuclear tests were stopped in Russia, the USA, England, and in 1996 in France and China.
In 1986 the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed. But in May of 1998, India and Pakistan held nuclear tests In 2006-2009 North Korea held a series of tests of nuclear devices. It also has the means of transportation of nuclear bombs to many regions.
First nuclear tests the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea held yet in 2006.
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea routs down to 1950-s, when they adopted a decision to establish several scientific-research centers, working within the sphere of nuclear physics. Then significant aid to North Korea was granted by the Soviet Union. In the middle of 1980-s the process of reduction of political and economic support of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea from the USSR and China began, which forced the authorities of the country to intensify the development of nuclear program that started to be observed as the only guarantor of regime’s survival.
Now no one doubts that North Korea possesses nuclear weapon. However, what is its real technical capacity?
What does the fact of possessing nuclear weapon mean to the states of the region?
Which should be the reaction and actions of world community?
One of the main elements of American disarmament line is further development of Nunn-Lugara program.
In order to assist Russia with disposal of mass destruction weapon and the sources of its transportation in 2012 the USA is planning to grant more than 73 million dollars under this program. Except for that the Administration of Barak Obama requests from the Congress 9 million 804 thousand dollars in order to provide technical support to the factories to liquidate chemical weapons.
Washington also significantly broadens geographic zone of Nunn-Lugara program. Last December the Head of the Pentagon Robert Gates adopted a corresponding decree on inclusion into the program of Iraq, India, China and African states. By this in 2009 the USA already made a decision to include into the Nunn-Lugara program Afghanistan and Pakistan.
At the moment Russian government within the frameworks of program is authorized with the responsibility for further maintenance of modernized systems of physical defense of nuclear weapon storage installed with the assistance of America. The USA keeps on assisting Russia in assurance of transportation to dispose nuclear warheads, as well as processed nuclear fuel from submarine reactors.
During the period of Nunn-Lugara program activity within the area of the former USSR they disposed 7599 nuclear warheads and 3713 missile launchers, strategic bomber aircrafts and subsurface launch platform.
A significant event in the sphere of non-proliferation was the Law on “Ratification of Amendment to Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material”, which was signed by the President of Kazakhstan on March 21st, 2011.
The Convention of October 26th 1979 is a fundamental universal international treaty, regulating the issues of assurance of physical safety of nuclear activity.
Kazakhstan joint to the Convention on December 22nd 2004. The Amendment to the Convention, adopted on July 8th 2005 in Vienna improves the mechanism of cooperation of the Convention member-states in order to guarantee physical protection of nuclear material, prevention and extinction of stealing of this material and coup de main against nuclear units, minimization of negative consequences of such actions.
The text of Convention gains new provision, defining the liability of each state to create and support the appropriate regime of physical protection of nuclear materials and units, which are located under their jurisdiction. The given liability is anticipated in order to protect from stealing and other illegal capture of nuclear materials by their implementation, storage and transportation.
Before the beginning of the next Summit on nuclear security in Seoul in spring of 2012 Kazakhstan has already transported 13 tons of fissile materials into more secure storage inside of the country. Fissile materials were completely dismissed from Libya, Chile, Turkey, Serbia and Romania. And Ukraine and Belarus took the liability to withdraw all high-enriched uranium (HEU) from its territory by the beginning of Seoul Summit.
It is acknowledged that the USA, other powers persistently cooperate with other states in all over the world trying to provide them with access to peaceful nuclear energy eliminating the risks of proliferation.
Peoples realize that they need to join their efforts to preserve peace on Earth. And within this process a significant role should be given to regional organizations, in which all the UN member-states participate.
The key issue of last UN decades is nuclear one. Today there is no feeling of total uncontrol of international community within the sphere of nuclear non-proliferation.
Last year in the UN frameworks some steps forward were made.
Thus, on May 29th the so-called disarmament plan was adopted. 189 member-states of the Nuclear Weapon Non -proliferation Treaty singed in the UNO a detailed plan on gradual disarmament.
After complicated discussions the treaty members still reached the consensus in relation to the final text of the declaration. And they did that during the last day of the Conference that lasted a month.
As the UNO official addresses reported, according to the adopted plan, the most significant nuclear powers (Great Britain, China, Russia, the USA and France) intend to accelerate the process of their arsenal reduction.
The document also contains the intention to call in 2012 a Conference on the establishment within Near East of a zone, free from nuclear weapon and mass destruction weapons. This also should attract such international bodies as the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) and Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).