Main Aspects of the Providing the Protection of Human Rights and Promotion the Democracy on the Global level. Pessimistic and optimistic scenarios and ways for the problems resolution

Main Aspects of the Providing the Protection of Human Rights and Promotion the Democracy on the Global level. Pessimistic and optimistic scenarios and ways for the problems resolution


Nika Chitadze.

 

President of the George C. Marshall Alumni Union, Georgia – International and Security Research Center

Professor of the International Black Sea University

Director of the Center for International Studies

 

Abstract

In the research, there are analyzed main principles of democracy and human rights, main global processes, which are going on in the modern World, related to the increasing the number of the democratic states from one side, and main threats and challenges, which seriously hamper the further enlargement of democracy from the other side. Among them, it should be pointed out about conflicts, terrorism, poverty, lack of knowledge of the World Population about main principles of democracy and human rights, North-South gap, existence of the failed states etc. 

At the second part of the presentation, there are presented the recommendations, how, by the taking into consideration the several geopolitical, economic, information, security and other factors, to promote the democracy and provide the protection of human rights in the different regions of the World.

Keywords                                                                                                      

Democracy, Human Rights, State, Education, Society

 

Introduction: Main principles of Human Rights and Democracy

Human rights represent the moral and legal principles or norms, which determine the concrete standards of human action and are regularly recognized as legal rights in internal municipal and international law (Nickel, Pogge, Smith, Wenar, 2013). They are commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being," and which are "inherent in all human beings" (Weston, 2014) regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status (The United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, 2014). They are applicable everywhere and at every time in the sense of being universal, and they are egalitarian in the sense of being the same for everyone. They are regarded as requiring empathy and the rule of law Bass (book reviewer), Samuel Moyn, 2010) and imposing an obligation on persons to respect the human rights of others, and it is generally considered that they should not be taken away except as a result of due process based on specific circumstances; for example, human rights may include freedom from unlawful imprisonmenttorture, and execution (Merriam-Webster dictionary, 2010).

The concept of human rights has been highly influential within international public law, also within the International Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. Policy of the countries and different governmental or non-governmental institutions forms the public policy on the global level. The idea of human rights suggests that "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights"  (Beitz 2009).

Many principles and concepts were formulated by the human rights movement after the Second World War. Within UN, in 1946 Human Rights Commission was established, which implemented huge work for the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. It was followed by the adoption new International conventions, particularly, the “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” and “the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights” were adopted by UN General Assembly in 1966, “The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide” (1948), “The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees” (1951), “The International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination” (1966), “The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women” (1979), “The Convention against Torture and other Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment” (1984, “The Convention on the Rights of the Child” (1989) etc. (UN, 2005)

Democracy: Demokrátiya  (other - Greek. δημοκρατία —“government by the people”, from δῆμος —“people” and κράτος — “authority”) —  represents the political regime, main principles of which includes the method  of collective decision, which is implemented  with the equal action of participants on the final result  of the concrete process (Hyland, 1995)  or on its essential stages (Christiano, 2006).

 

Although this method is applicable to any public structures, state today is most important institute, since it possesses large authority. In this case the determination of democracy usually narrows to one of the following signs:

-          The election of leaders by the people as a result of the free and fair elections (Huntington, 2003);

-          People is singularly legitimate source of power;

-          Society achieves self-governance for the satisfaction the common interests (Aristotle)

Public governance requires the guarantee of a number of rights for each member of society. With the democracy are connected several values: legality, political  and  social  equality,  freedom,  right  to  the  self-determination, human rights and other.

Since the ideal democracy  is not easily attainable and  is the subject  of different interpretations, there were proposed the set of practical models. Till the XVIII century, the most known model was direct democracy, where the citizens achieve their right by the adoption the political decisions directly, due to  the reaching  of the consensus or with the assistance of the procedures of the subordination of minority to majority.  In the representative  democracy  the  citizens  achieve the same  right  through  the  elected  by them deputies  and  other  officials by delegation  to them the part of their own rights. At the same time, the elected  leaders  make  decisions by the  taking into account the preferences of their voters (Shumpeter, 1995).

One of the basic purposes of democracy is the limitation of arbitrariness  and  abuses of power.  This  purpose  frequently  could not be reached at those countries, where human rights and other democratic values were not  universally recognized or they did not have effective protection from legal system`s side. Today, in  many  countries  democracy  is  identified  with liberal democracy,  where, in the framework of the fair, periodic  and  general election,  the candidates, for the attraction of the voters votes, are involved in the free competition, which also includes the supremacy of law, separation of the branches of powers and constitutional limitations of the rule of the majority via the guarantees of the specific personal or group freedoms. 

From  the  other side,  prominent  economists, and also  such representatives of the Western  political  elite  as  the former President of the USA Barack Obama, the  Executive Director of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) Christine Lagarde and other assert, that the realization of the right  of the  adoption  of political decisions,  influence  of  citizens on the policy of the country  will be impossible without the guarantee of social rights, equality of opportunities and with presence of low level of social and economic inequality. 

A number  of authoritarian regimes had the external  signs of democratic administration;  however,  in  those states the power was possessed only by one party and the conducted policy is not depended on the preferences of voters. During the last quarter of XX Century, the World was characterized by the tendency of democracy enlargement.

To the number of comparatively new problems related to development of the democratic institutions are belonged separatism, terrorism, the migration of population, increasing the  political and social  inequality.  The international organizations, such  as  the  UN, OSCE and European Union,  assume that the  control  over  the  internal affairs of  the state, including questions of democracy  and observance of human rights,  partially  must  be in  the  sphere  of  the  influence  of  the  international  community.

 

Enlargement of Democracy in the Modern Times 

 

After the ending of the “Cold War” and disintegration of the communist system, the convenient base for the democracy enlargement and promotion of the peaceful co-existence among the states has been created. While discussing about the democratization of the World, it should be pointed out, that it is comparatively new process, which was characterized for the second of the XX and beginning of the XXI Century. For example, if after the World War I, democratic regimes were established in almost 30 countries, during the period of World War II, only 12 Democratic states have been remained (Rondeli, 2003) In the 60s of the previous Century, the number of liberal countries was 37, in the mid of 70s of the twentieth century, to the list of democratic states were belonged less than 1/3 of all countries in the world. After the collapse of USSR and failing of the communist ideology, the new wave of democratization has started. As a result, in 2012 the number of Free countries in the World were 90. (Freedom House, 2013) In the modern World, the wealth is concentrated in the democratic states. As it is known, in the countries with the strong market economy, as a result of the socio-economic development, the middle class is becoming much more stronger, the level of education is increasing and population expresses its interest into the peace, when it will be possible to continue the enlargement of the business, trade and accordingly, attraction of more profit. Due to it, the society in the democratic states considers the importance of peace and International cooperation. At the same time, in the democratic state, the process of decision-making does not promote the introduction of the chauvinistic or imperialistic policy and dominance of the militaristic ideas in the foreign policy. It especially concerns the relations among of the democratic states and those relations are based on the each other’s respect and deeper economic and cultural cooperation. Even more, democratic states create so-called “zone of peace”, which is gradually enlarging. However, there are many obstacles on the way of the democracy enlargement and providing the protection of human rights in the World. In this regard it should be mentioned about the following negative factors

 

    Main obstacles, related to the democracy enlargement

However, there are many obstacles on the way of the democracy enlargement and providing the protection of human rights in the World. In this regard should be mentioned about the following negative factors:

 

Absence of democracy in the most of the countries of the World.  Despite the increasing the number of the democratic states in the World, according the Freedom House report for 2013, there were 58 only partly Free and 47 non-free countries with the authoritarian political regimes[1].

For example, if we take into consideration the most populated part of the World, Asia - where the number of population in 2014 was about 4 Billion 384 Million people, more than 2,5 Billion, accordingly, more than 50% of the population of Asia lives in the counties with authoritarian and semi-authoritarian regimes[2].  

 

Conflicts. Despite the fact, that after the end of the confrontation between the two systems and the ending of "cold war", the number of conflicts has somehow decreased. For example, through negotiations became possible to find a solution of conflicts in South-east Asia (Cambodia), in Africa (Namibia, Angola), Latin America (Nicaragua, El Salvador) etc. Nevertheless, regional and local conflicts in the beginning of the XXI century continue to threaten the international security and democratization. In addition, many of them have the ability to generate a kind of terrorist waves and spread them sometimes far beyond the conflict zones. Shortly we can assume, that without understanding the nature of the conflict, it is impossible to fully understand how the protection of the fundamental principles of human rights on the global level should be provided.

 

With regard to the issue - about the number of conflicts, in this case if we trust to the most authoritative data of the special institute for the study of conflict, which is located in Heidelberg (Germany), in 2013 the total number of conflicts in the different Regions of the World reached 414![3]

 

Two World Wars, about 200 wars, local armed conflicts, terror, armed fighting for the power, all those types of conflicts, killed within the previous Century about 300 million people (A. Antsupov. A. Shipolov. 2008. p.11)). 

 

As a result of the conflicts, it was violated the human rights of more than 20 million people, when in the beginning of the XXI Century, some 5,8 million people were displaced within their own countries and 14,8 million people had become refugees by fleering across international borders (United Nations. 2004. P. 253).

 

Terrorism The general point of view on terrorism as a rare and relatively remote threat was challenged by the tragic events of September 11, 2001. The terrible incidents, visited on the World trade Center, the Pentagon, and the crash victims in Pennsylvania forced the International Community  to confront a grim new reality: Terrorist Organizations had an appropriate resources for the executing catastrophic attacks almost in each region of the World, even without an arsenal of sophisticated weapons.

 

9/11 became the first turning point for the whole world to focus on the issues of national as well international security.

 

As for the most recent developments show terrorism is assumed to be the most significant “enemy” of the 21-st century.

 

US State Department listed 44 terrorist organizations in 2008 (Joshua S. Goldstein. Jon C. Pevehouse. 2010. P. 207).

 

Today`s Boko Haram, Tamil Tigers, Al-Qaeda, Hezbollah play very significant roles even in deciding the scope of foreign policy of leading superpowers.

 

Nowadays, the main threat within the terrorist activities maintains ISIS. Its activity represents the new form of terrorism, when this terrorist group, which controls huge territories, even control oil fields of Iraq and Syria, and established de facto state formation of Islamic Caliphate.  In August 2014, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights claimed that the number of fighters in the group had increased to 50,000 in Syria and 30,000 in Iraq, while the CIA estimated in September 2014 that in both countries it had between 20,000 and 31,500 fighters.[4]

 

It is necessary to add, about the existence of states on the World political map, that funds and supports different terrorist groups and illegal armed formations in the different regions of the World. United Nations, by the Resolution 39/159 “Inadmissibility of the policy of State terrorism and any actions by States aimed at undermining the socio-political system in other sovereign States”, condemns any actions of state-terrorism[5].

Existence of the Failed states on the World Political Map: The proliferation of failing represents the expanding global threat, due to the fact, that the internal conflicts percolated by state failure lead to the increased number of immigrants, famine, disease, drug trafficking, environmental degradation and terrorism.

 

The reasons of state failure and civil degradation are different. In general, research of this global danger presents the following factors:

 

-          A clear indicator of state failure is poverty, but extreme income and gender inequality within countries are even better warning signs;

-          The weak countries most vulnerable to internal rebellion are ruled by authorities, which are involved in deep corruption, widely regarded as illegitimate and ineffective;

-       Democracy, particularly under the ruling of a strong government, generally decreases the risk of state failure; autocracy creates the conditions for the weakening the state institutions within the states;

-     Countries, with the weak democratic institutions, however, are more unstable than either strong  democracies or poor non democracies, and weak democracies are not able to improve socio-economic conditions are exceptionally vulnerable;

-      Population pressures, exacerbated by internally displaced people, refugees, and food scarcity, contribute to state failure and civil unrest;

-     Governments that have no will or enough resources for the providing the human rights protection, are especially prone to fail;

-     Countries with governments that do not establish an appropriate base for the freedom of religion and religious tolerance, are especially likely to fail.

 

(Source: C. Kegley, S. Blanton. 2010-2011. P. 237)

 

Military spending – Due to the ending of the “Cold War”, World military spending decreased by about one-third overall in the 1990s, but, after the creation the new realities, then began to increase again after 1998 and jumped back up after 2001. Within the first decade of the XXI Century, World military spending was about 1 trillion every year  (Joshua S. Goldstein. Jon C. Pevehouse. 2007. P. 151). Taking into accounts the existence of many internal and interstate conflicts, also necessities for the implementation peacekeeping, combating terrorism etc. Operations, huge amount of money is spent for military issues instead of funding various projects related to democracy and human rights issues.     

 

Poverty -  Taking into consideration the fact, that in the beginning of the XXI century, nearly half of the World`s population still must make do on less than $2 per day, some 860 million people were illiterate, over 100 million children, had no access to school, over 1 billion lacked access to safe water, and some 2,4 million people-more than a third of the World`s population – lacked access to proper sanitation etc.  all above-mentioned problems create the necessity to resolve by the international community first of all social problems before the increasing democratic political culture among of the poorest part of the World population (United Nations. 2004. P. 144).

 

North-South Gap - Today, in the developing world (Global South), lives about 80% of the World population, however, they produce only 40% of the World GDP (R. Mukhaev. 2009. P.  596). At the same time, Taking into account, that world population each year is increasing for 80-85 million people, and about 90% of growth is coming on the countries from the global south, it can be assumed that each year the percentage of the population in the democratic states from global North is gradually decreasing (V. Neidze. 2004. Pp.233-234). This factor can influence on the increasing the possibilities of illegal migration from the global south to the global north, increasing the level of unemployment etc. Furthermore, in the countries of the global south, where the level of reproduction is high, in the age structure prevails young population. But, at the same time, the existence of a “young bulge” – a large proportion of young adults in the population – increases the risk of state failure through war because large pools of underemployed youths are easily mobilized into military action. 

 

Gender inequality. Despite the measurable improvement in the daily lot and future prospects of millions of women during the past several decades, for example, adoption of 1979 convention on the elimination of discrimination against women[6] and the 1999 optional protocol to the convention etc.[7] as measured by the UN`s Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), Women from the different regions of our planet continue to be disadvantaged relative to men in the different fields. Disparities between men and women persist, for example, in literacy rates, school and college enrollments and targeted educational resources. For example, among people, who are unsalaried, women are more likely that men to be unpaid family workers, while men are more likely than women to be self-employed or employers. Other problem is interrelated to the involvement of the Women in policy-making process on the governmental level, even in the countries, where the democratic institutions are strong and standard of living is high. “Gender parity in parliamentary representation is still far from being realized. In 2008 women accounted for 18 percent of parliamentarians worldwide” (C. Kegley, S. Blanton. 2010-2011. p. 536). Since 1900, only 15 percent of the World`s countries have had one or more female heads of state, and today only 14,5 percent of ministerial positions. What is also clear is that “Robust democracy is exceedingly rare in societies that marginalize women”. 20 percent of women have suffered child abuse as children (UNHCR 2008); and according to the International labor Organization, “between 700 000 and 2 million women and children are trafficked across an international border somewhere in the world every year” (C. Kegley, S. Blanton. 2010-2011. p. 538).

 

Slavery and Human Trafficking One of the most terrible human rights violations to which women, as well as children, are particularly vulnerable is human trafficking. According to the U.S. Agency for International Development (as to 2011), 700 000 to 4 million people are bought and sold each year as sex slaves, prostitutes, domestic workers, child labourers and child soldiers. Human trafficking is the third largest illicit global business after trafficking in drugs and the arms trade, that generates between $12 and $17 billion annually (C. Kegley, S. Blanton. 2010-2011. p. 539-540).

 

International Drug Trade The illegal drug trade represents the global black market consisting of production, transportation, distribution, packaging, and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. Illegal drug trade usually is followed by other types of brutality and criminal activities, particularly: hundreds of drug related murders, kidnappings, and other violent crime take place in the highly volatile U.S-Mexico border where there is significant drug presence.

 

The illicit drugs trade is one of the most influential global illegal activities, at some over $350 billion. According to UN research, about 200 million people (4.8% of the world’s population aged 15-64) use illegal drugs annually with 25 million being classed as problem users (0.6%)[8]

 

 

Problems of Education: It can be assumed, that one the main reasons of the weaknesses of the democratic institutions represents the educational factors. First of all, lacking of information in the Societies of the different countries regarding knowledge by citizens their own civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. In this regard it is necessary to point out the following issues:    

 

- Lack of information about main principles of Human Rights Protection and models of Democracy in International society, particularly among the Scientific circles, representatives of the governmental agencies, students, NGO-s, representatives of the different regions of etc.

 

In this case the following factors are worth of mentioning:

 

- Despite the fact, that today practically in all countries of the World many educational Institutions – Schools, Universities, Colleges, Institutes are registered, there are lack of Institutes,  where discipline-Human Rights Law/Democracy or other directly related to Human rights protection subject is taught. The subjects related to Human Rights are not taught at the Faculties of Political Sciences and law even in the leading Universities of many countries.

   

- There is no reference literature-for example books about Human Rights Law and Models of Democracy in  official state languages of many countries, and if we take into consideration the fact, that according to the data for 2012, approximately no more than 1,5 Billion people speaks the first International language - English (native language  for about 400 Million people and second language  for about 1,1 Billion) (N. Elizbarashvili, Z. Davitashvili, N. Beruchashvili. 2012. P.148 )and in most of the schools and  Institutes lectures are given in native languages, it is very difficult for many school pupils and students to study Human Rights and democracy issues (for example various International conventions on Human Rights issues) and Democracy in official languages of the different states;

 

- Shortage of the materials about Human rights and Democratic standards can also be observed in central and local governmental agencies. Besides, if we take into consideration the fact, that in the most of the regions of the world majority of population does not speak English on which the Information about Human Rights legislation-first of all International Conventions and Principles of Democracy can be obtained and more than 50% of the World population has no access to internet (for example: the number of internet users worldwide was 3.17 billion in 2015[9],  it is clear that  majority of the population in the World has no or limited  information about main principles of democracy; 

 

-There are deficit of qualified NGO-s in the different Regions of our planet specialized in Human Rights and Democracy studies issues;

 

- There are lack of analytical journals on Human Rights  protection issues;

 

-Limited information about models of democracy and legislation in sphere of human rights protection is presented by television and other mass-media means in many countries;

 

-Only limited number of journalists are familiar with the Human rights and Democracy issues. Thus, there are few qualified opinions on this matter in the mass-media means of many countries.

 

In this regard, one of the main problem is Illiteracy: Despite the progress in the field of education in the recent years, nevertheless, in the beginning of the XXI Century, more than 115 million children – nearly 56 percent of them girls in developing countries – had no access to primary education, and many who begin to study are forced to leave because of poverty, family and social pressures (UN, 2005. P. 184). 

Despite literacy efforts, 862 million adults were illiterate, some two thirds of whom were women.

 

 

Recommendations for the enlargement of democracy on the global level

 

Taking into account, that the providing of international security is significantly depended on the democracy enlargement, by the international community, the following factors should be taken into consideration: 

 

Geopolitical Factors

 

For the providing the further enlargement of Democracy, Western democratic states should strengthen their strategic positions, to be prepared with the resistance from different non-democratic forces and for this, it is necessary to work out the common strategy, which will create possible to prevent the anti-Atlantic tendencies. For this purpose, democratic forces should not admit the cooperation and unifications of the different anti-democratic forces. In this regard, the interests of the west requires the following:  

1.       To provide and promote cooperation and unity among the countries of the Global North – especially between North America and Europe – for the example to discuss the issue about foundation common economic market, determine the common strategy for the relations with anti-western unities (for example Shanghai Cooperation Organization etc.)

2.       Maximal support in the implementation democratic reforms and promoting integration to the western democratic society those states, whose foreign policy and national security priorities are the establishment closer relations with the west. For example, to get consensus for the admission of Georgia and Ukraine to NATO and further integration to the European structures of those states. The benefits, which will be received by those two former Soviet Republics during the relations with EU and NATO (for example, according to the experts, in case of entrance to the force the free trade regime between Georgia and EU, the GDP of Georgia would increase on average for 4,3%) will represent the examples for other post-soviet republics, which will increase the motivation among of those states to implement democratic reforms for the providing further cooperation with EU etc. In this case, the process of democratization maximally can cover about 1/6 part of our planet (the whole territory of the post-soviet space).

3.       To support such International Institutions, which legitimate the western interests and attract the non-western states at those institutions.

 

Strengthening the principles of International Law.

 

Reformation of UN:

 

-          For the providing the main principle of International Law – the sovereign equality of the states, and for the democratization of the decision making within the most important International Organization in the World – United Nations, it is necessary to abolish the right of veto for the permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations. Thus, all decisions should be adopted by the principle of simple majority. At least 9 Countries among of 15 (permanent and non-permanent members) should support the adoption of the concrete decision related to the providing peace and security in the different regions of the World. The international community has the examples, how two permanent members of the security Council under authoritarian regimes – Russia and China were blocking the decision related to the using of force by NATO with the purpose of the preventing from genocide  the population of Kosovo in 1999. The same can be mentioned about nuclear program of Iran, when Russia and China were abusing with their right of veto, which was seriously hampering the resolution of the problem (when majority of the members supported the adoption of the resolution); It should be also considered the cases of Russian aggression against Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine within the periods 2014-2015. UN Security Council was unable to adopt any sanctions against aggressor state;

 

-          Increasing the number of the permanent members at the Security Council, thus to give an opportunity to the different regions of the World to have their representative at the Council. Particularly, to consider the topic of the admission as an permanent member of UN Security Council Germany and Japan - countries with the one of the biggest economies in the World. Furthermore, all regions have to have their representatives at the council, for example - Brazil on behalf of Latin America, Nigeria on behalf of Africa, Australia – on behalf of Australia and Pacific,  India and Indonesia on behalf of Asia. All those countries are among the ten leading countries according the number of population in the World;

 

 

-          Taking into account the fact, that the main principles of International Law – sovereign equality of the stets is more protected and respected within the UN General Assembly, which is the main deliberate organ and highest International Tribune, It is composed of representatives of all members states, each of which has one vote, but at the same time, the decisions of the Assembly have no legally binding force for governments, many countries, first of all those, who ignore the fundamental principles of democracy and human rights protection, it is necessary – in the framework of the UN reformation, to include to the agenda the issue, according of which most of the resolutions of  the Assembly should have the mandatory character, thus, more countries, which violate the human rights and take advantage that UN is not able to interfere in the internal affairs of the states (article. 2 of the UN charter) will have more responsibilities before the UN and international community in General to fulfill its obligations and respect the principles of International Law.    

 

International Court of Justice  Taking into account, that International Court of Justice covers all questions that states refer to it, and all matters provided for in the United Nations Charter, or in international treaties and conventions, it is necessary to increase the role of ICJ during the resolution of the interstate conflicts. It should be increased the number of judges within the ICJ from 15 to about 30 people and simplify the procedures of the apply to the court for the peaceful resolution of the interstate problems. In this regard, by the working out the special mechanisms, it should be increased the responsibilities of the states to bind themselves in advance to accept the jurisdiction of the Court, either by signing a treaty or convention that provides for referral to the Court or by making a declaration to that effect. Such declarations accepting compulsory jurisdiction often contain reservations excluding certain classes of disputes.

 

Transformation of NATO and EU to the organizations with more Global functions

 

-          For the democracy enlargement, it is necessary to provide security in the different regions of the World. In this regard it should be mentioned about the role of NATO and EU in this process. Taking into account, that both organizations first of all represent not only politico-military and security (in case of NATO) and economic (in case of EU) organizations, but they are international regional communities of the democratic states, based on the common values – Superiority of the law and respect and protection the fundamental principles of human rights. Furthermore, taking into consideration the limited resources of UN and problems – related to the adoption of the decisions within the Unites Nations for the providing peace and security, it represent the great importance to increase the role, functions and geographical area of actions of NATO and EU. For example, North Atlantic Alliance was main guarantee of the providing peace and security and preventing genocide and mass violations of human rights in case of the conflicts in Balkans (Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia). Furthermore, NATO member states took the decisive role in combating terrorism and peacekeeping operations in Afghanistan within the ISAF mission and Iraq (by the supporting US and UK forces) etc.

 

With regard to EU, after the signing Maastricht and Lisbon treaties, also NATO-EU Berlin Plus Agreement in 2003, it has been significantly increased the role of the European Union in the fields of Defense and Security. In this regard it should be mentioned about the role of EU in the involvement in the peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Macedonia since 2005 (when EU forces replaced NATO forces), Georgia (functioning of EUMM Mission after Russia-Georgia war in 2008), also in Africa (Congo, Central African Republic, Mali etc.).

 

Taking into account the above-mentioned realities, the following aspects should be taken into consideration:

 

It should be established closed partnership relations with the democratic states from the different regions of the World for the working out joint actions related to combating terrorism and peacekeeping and peace building operations. The special attention should be paid on the promoting partnership relations with Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa etc.

 

Information Campaign  

 

As it is known, different radical groups work (including the using about 5000 web-sites) for the spreading the wrong information about the role of the countries from the global North in the World. For example, most of the people from the countries of the Global South consider the existence of the main socio-economic problems in their countries as a result of the exploitation by the economically rich states the poor states. Or, for example in most of the Islamic states, due to the propaganda from the radical and fundamentalist groups sides, many followers of Islam believe, that West is fighting against Islam religion etc.

 

Taking into account the above-mentioned factors, it is important to work out (for example during the G7 meeting, or in the framework of EU member states meetings) the special strategy and tactics for the maximal using the mass-media means and information technologiesfor the distribution the information about positive role of the International Democratic Society to support the fighting against poverty, misery, unemployment, corruption etc. in the developing countries.

 

Energy Factors 

 

Many events in the International economic relations are depended on the production and trade by oil and gas. Countries, possessing the large reserves logically should have a strong bargaining tool to influence their own political and economic status in the world economy.

Taking into account the above-mentioned factors, it is necessary to discuss the issue about providing the energy security of the democratic states, thus, to decrease their dependence on authoritarian regimes in the field of energy and weakening the authoritarian regimes, thus, to make them to be more accountable before the international democratic society, to decrease the imperialistic ambitions in those countries (case of Russia) and to implement the democratic reforms etc. 

Political elites in the west should take into consideration the development of the processes in the field of energy in the 80-th of the XX Century, when as a result of the negotiations between USA and Saudi Arabia, Official Washington assured the partner state from the Middle East, that one of the main method for the influence on USSR and making official Kremlin to decrease its imperialistic ambitions, thus, to provide the international security was depended on the decreasing the international oil prices. In 1985, Saudi Arabia increased the oil production for 3 times, as a result, the price on the barrel of oil fell down from 28 dollars to 10 dollars.

Taking into account, that one of the main budget income of Soviets was export of the “black gold”, the decreasing of the oil prices caused the increasing of the budget deficit for the 5 times within the years 1985-1988. As a result of the economic crisis, Soviet Empire agreed on the withdrawal of its armed forces from Afghanistan and later from the Eastern and Central Europe, unification of Germany, decreasing the defense costs etc. Finally, it caused the collapse of the world communist system and ending of the “cold war”. 

The second case, which can be considered in the field of energy, is the example of nuclear program of Iran.

As it is known, Iran (together with Russia) was interested in the existence of the problems related to the transparence of the nuclear program of Iran. It was providing the existence of the high international prices on oil and high incomes to the Iranian budget. The permanent members of the UN Security Council together with Germany could not work out the common approach for the problem`s resolution until the period of 2014, when EU adopted the sanctions against Iran related to the prohibition of the import the oil from Iran. Later, when the prices on the “black gold” have been decreased, as a result of sanctions and new prices on oil, the income of the daily export of oil from Iran decreased for 60 percent, which created the possibilities for the resolving the problem. Finally, Iran and “Great Six” states got an agreement, according to which the official Tehran would stop the nuclear program (the enrichment of uranium) instead of the gradual abolishment the sanctions against Iran.   

USA-EU cooperation in the field of energy. Cooperation between USA and Europe in the field of energy, for example, in case of the successful implementation the different energy projects bypassing the territory of Russia, also, increasing the consumption of the alternative sources of energy, the convenient base for the promoting international peace and stability will be established, which will be connected with the fact, that the influence of authoritarian states and terrorist groups, such as ISIS (which still controls the important parts of the territories of Iraq and Syria, who try to use the energy reserves, having been produced on their territories for the political reasons), will be significantly decreased in the World Politics and will make those states to consider the implementation of democratic reforms inside the country.    

The strategic oil reserves have gradually lost its importance for the national and energy security of USA during the “Shall gas” revolution. Due to it, USA, by the increasing the production of oil and decreasing the export of the “black gold” will be able to influence on the International Prices of oil, which will negatively effect on the positions of the several authoritarian regimes, who posses the important reserves of oil and gas.   For example, according to the Russian economists, as a result of the economic sanctions and decreasing the prices on oil, the damage for the Russian economy will be about 570 Billion USD.

It should be pointed out, that together with the development of the gas industry, it is decreased the consumption of oil, accordingly its import to USA. For example, if in 2005, USA satisfied its demands on import oil for 60%, in 2013 this data is decreased till 35%. With regard to Natural Gas, its import within 2005-2013 decreased for 32 percent, which also caused the decreasing the US foreign trade deficit. 

With regard to the gas, taking into account that as a result of the yearly incomes of Russia for the export of natural gas to Europe prevails 400 Billion Euro per year, it is important the consideration to support the idea of the export shall gas – produced on the territory of USA to Europe.

Economic factors

USA-EU Relations

It is important the unification of the American and European markets in the framework of TTIP – Transatlatic Trade and Investment Partnership program.Nowadays, the daily volume of the trade between USA and Europe is about 3 Billion Dollars. In case of integration the American and European markets, for the different companies, especially transatlantic companies can be created the huge unified space, in the consumption market of which will be involved about 800 million people.

Relations with the developing countries

According to World Bank Group, the combined stock of developing countries' external debt was $5.5 trillion at end 2013, to the agenda of the different Intergovernmental (UN, EU) Organizations, also World Summits (G7, Davos Forum) and International Financial Institutions (World Bank Group, International Monetary Fund – where most of the decision-making process is adopted by the economically rich states), to discuss the issue of the gradual abolishment the foreign debt of the most of the countries of Africa, Asia, Latino America and Pacific by the conditions, that countries from the global south with the assistance help of democratic states and International Institutions (who will work the main recommendations according to the specific needs of the concrete state) - will take the responsibilities for the democratization of their political system, will fight against corruption etc.    

 

Demographic Factors

Taking into account, that due to the law level of the birthrate and reproduction in the democratic and economically developed states, it is necessary to implement the special programs, which would encourage the birth rate in the democratic states. Particularly, to develop the programs for the financial support of those families, who have 3 and more children, to work out the special programs for the children, mothers and young families protections.

Educational Factors

 

For the providing the introduction the democratic political culture among the young part of the population for the long-term perspectives, it is necessary the increasing public awareness on Democracy and Human Rights. In this regard, it should be mentioned about the importance of the introduction the study course – Human Rights Law and Democracy Studies as a mandatory course for the school pupils of the 10-11 classes (in the public schools) in the each countries of the world. In this regard, the methodology and concrete program (teachers training, syllabus etc.) of the study course should be worked out and presented by the appropriate International Institution (Most probably UNESCO) and give the recommendation to an appropriate offices of UN and especially UNESCO to include to the agenda the possibilities of the adoption the international convention in the field of education related to the introduction the study course Democracy and Human Rights Protections a mandatory course for the school pupils of the 10 or 11-th classes.

 

In this regard, the special book (or handbook) should be written by the appropriate specialist in Human Rights from the different states in English and should be translated to the official languages of the different nations. 

 

 

References:

 

Hyland J. L. (1995). Democratic Theory: The Philosophical Foundations. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press. 

Christiano T. (2006). Democracy // Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy / E. N. Zalta (ed.). — Stanford.

Huntington, S (2003). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. — М.: РОССПЭН, 2003. 

Aristotle, Politics, Book 3. Retrieved from: http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-pol/

Шумпетер Й. (1995). Капитализм, Социализм и Демократия. / Пер под ред. В. С. Автономова. — М.:Экономика. (Shumpeter, 1995. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy).

James Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar (2013), Human Rights, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights (2014), What are human rights?

Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/Pages/HighCommissioner.aspx

Beitz, Charles R. (2009). The idea of human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Burns H. Weston (2014). Human rights, The New Republic, The Old New Thing, Encyclopedia Britannica

Merriam-Webster dictionary (2014),  Rights (as freedom from unlawful imprisonment, torture, and execution) regarded as belonging fundamentally to all persons. Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/

Macmillan Dictionary (2014). Human rights - definition.  Retrieved from: http://www.macmillandictionaries.com/

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12.10.2018

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