Lithuania and Poland are planning to reduce or even completely abandon Russian gas. Perhaps in the Kaliningrad enclave will not Russian gas.
Now Poland consumes 14 billion cubic meters of gas per year , with about 10 billion cubic meters - Russian gas , the rest the country produces its own. While "Gazprom" - the only physical supplier of gas to Poland .
More recently, "Gazprom" with the participation of Poland was going to increase the volume of gas supplies to Europe - to realize the Yamal -Europe 2 . Motivation - the desire to improve the reliability of Russian gas in Poland , Slovakia and Hungary. "Gazprom" has supported the idea . After receiving previously Belarusian pipe in the property, he could now essentially up to the border of Poland on Gazprom's gas supply pipe.
Project will be implemented in 2018-2019 was - after all 4 will run gas pipeline "South Stream" . Needless decision on construction of the Yamal -Europe 2 Russia was going to take the fall 2013
Although Europol Gaz and "Gazprom" signed a memorandum on the construction of the Yamal -Europe 2 in 2018-2019 , after just two weeks , Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk dismissed Minister Mikolaj Budzanowski for the fact that he did not inform the government about the impending signing of this memorandum .
Later, Deputy Prime Minister , Minister of Economy of Poland Janusz Pehochinski said that the decision on the project will be taken after the feasibility study . It was stated that Poland does not want to be hostage to the gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine , although interested to earn on gas transit .
Meanwhile, the "Gazprom" was aimed at to increase gas transit through Ukrainian Poland by reducing supply . Gas monopoly, had planned to build the second stage of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline bypassing Ukraine and not send it to Germany, and Slovakia. Poland scenario of "Gazprom" is not supported . Poles would like to see there was a second parallel gas pipeline Yamal-Europe to Berlin and to Germany.
One of the key elements of achieving energy independence Warsaw announced shale gas. According to estimates of the Geological Institute of Poland , shale gas reserves in the country are from 345 to 768 billion cubic meters. m This volume can fully meet the needs of gas to Poland in 35-65 years.
In January 2014 the Irish energy company San Leon Energy for the first time in Poland was able to get a sample of long-term and sustainable flow of shale gas. The company intends to continue drilling , considering the potential of the project in the north of Poland just as significant as the potential of similar sources of gas in the U.S..
The Polish Government is ready to assist with its mining tax policies . To interest companies in shale gas , Warsaw in 2015 plans to take tax law under which the tax on shale gas will not be charged until 2020.
In addition, in early 2014, oil and gas concern PGNiG discovered a large gas field in southern Poland - in the Carpathians region on the border with Slovakia and Ukraine. Gas reserves are estimated at several billion cubic meters . Gas production PGNiG plans to start the second half of 2015 . According to preliminary estimates, in the first year production will be 100 thousand cubic meters. m night .
Poland is now in process of liberalization of the market in the Third EU Gas Directive , which provides for the separation of the business of selling and transporting gas.
Under this program, in October 2010 as the technical operator of the Polish section of the Yamal-Europe joint venture Europol Gaz ( shareholders - "Gazprom" and PGNiG) were transferred independent of "Gazprom" pipe operator - the company Gaz-System. Recently, the company has officially announced the reversal of the gas to Poland . This became possible after entering the German Gascade Gastransport GmbH the gas station " Mallnow " on the Polish- German border . Reverse allow Poland to receive up to 2.3 billion cubic meters of gas per year, and if Russia does stop gas supplies - more than 5 billion cubic meters. By 2020, Poland plans to become independent from the natural gas supplies from Russia .
Recently , the Polish government also adopted a program for the construction of two nuclear power plants by 2035 . According to experts, in the Polish conditions NPP are the cheapest and most reliable solution to energy issues. In April 2013 in Poland , a comparative analysis of the cost of production of electricity in nuclear power plants, coal and gas as well as renewable energy sources , which confirmed these findings.
While "Gazprom" is the sole supplier of gas to Lithuania . The country consumes annually about 3 billion cubic meters. meters of Russian gas .
Lithuania is now building in Klaipeda terminal of liquefied natural gas (LNG) , which will reduce dependence on Russian gas . Construction of the LNG terminal in Lithuania started in 2011 and completed in 2014 . Lithuania initially set a goal to build a terminal quickly and with minimal costs. Therefore, after studying 15 options , it was decided to build it in the form of a floating station on the territory of the port facilities terminal Klaipedos nafta.
Klaipedos Nafta will receive a lease for 10 years at the Norwegian company Hoegh LNG ship for storage and regasification . In South Korea, a special base built tanker , which will pass through the pumping gas.
To implement the project Lithuania build not only the terminal itself , but also lay a gas pipeline between the cities Jurbarkas and Klaipeda (150 km). Lithuania also carries out reform of the gas sector in the Third Gas Directive of the European Union .
In Lithuania, the hope that the construction of an LNG terminal would also lead to a decrease in natural gas prices for Lithuanian consumers. Now she is one of the highest in Europe - about 500 USD / thousand . cu. m
It is assumed that the flow of liquefied natural gas in the U.S. Lithuania will likely , after about a year . American companies must obtain government permission to export gas to the countries with which there is no free trade agreements . But Lithuania hopes that the U.S. Congress will take the amendments that will remove restrictions on exports of natural gas to NATO. Some American politicians also believe that in the current situation with such a decision need potoropitsya.Amerikansky gas will reduce dependence on Russian gas in Europe .
There is no certainty with the prospects of Russian gas supplies to the Kaliningrad region , where gas is currently transported through the territory of Belarus. Kaliningrad region consumes 2.2 billion cubic meters. meters of gas per year, which comes on line Minsk- Vilnius-Kaunas- Kaliningrad ( pipeline capacity - 2.6 billion cubic meters per year ) .
Meanwhile, an agreement with Lithuania on gas transit to the Kaliningrad region until 2016 . What are the prospects of extending this contract , the experts are not yet ready to say. At the same time, Russia is now considering alternative scenarios supplies into the region. In particular, we discuss the possibility of building in the regasification terminal capacity of approximately 3 billion cubic meters per year for the supply of liquefied natural gas. It is assumed that the terminal can earn in 2017 . A pesrpektiva remains that in the coming years, the transit of Russian gas will decline strongly in the direction of the Russian enclave .21