Kazakhstan began the transition from presidential to presidential-parliamentary form of government. The constitutional reform, designed to strengthen the powers of parliament and government by reducing the powers of the president, takes place in a country in a peaceful atmosphere and with the full support of the population. As an example, we can cite the example of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, where the delegation of presidential powers to the parliament took place in a revolutionary way and with human sacrifices.
The country, which soon after gaining independence, proclaimed itself a presidential republic, is progressively moving away from strong presidential power, expanding the powers of civil society.
It is noteworthy that the latest reforms, when more than 40 presidential powers (from the appointment of the government to the approval of state development programs) are transferred to the executive and legislative branches of power were initiated precisely by the head of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan several years ago announced a strategy for the development of the state, which involves reforming both the country's economy and the gradual transformation of the political system. First of all, we are talking not only about the transfer of rights to make decisions, but also about the level of responsibility of different branches of power, both executive and representative in the person of parliament.
The European Commission for Democracy through the Law of the Council of Europe (Venice Commission) stated that constitutional changes in Kazakhstan are an important step in the process of democratization of the state and set the right vector in the overall development of the country.
It should be noted that when transferring the powers of the president to the parliament of Kazakhstan, the issues of ensuring the security of the country remain in the hands of the head of state. Without ensuring national security interests, Kazakhstan, as a country in the region of instability, cannot be any country's economic success.
This is well understood in Astana. Therefore, a few years ago, in 2009, there was a major change in special structures in Kazakhstan: the Foreign Intelligence Service was assigned to a separate structure in the national security system.
The creation of an authorized body in the sphere of foreign intelligence has become the starting point in reforming the system of operative information, and therefore also a preventive response to potential threats from outside. The fact is that counterintelligence within the country does not allow monitoring the movement of potential threats to the country beyond its borders. So, the level of danger for the population of the state increases at times. For Kazakhstan, this is especially true given the region's explosive potential and plans to build a "caliphate" by the international terrorist organization DAISH.
The division of intelligence from counterintelligence also shows a clear separation of power in the "power" bloc, a departure from totalitarian approaches, which can be assessed as a process of democratization of special services.
The effectiveness of the work of the National Security Committee and the Foreign Intelligence Service "Sirbar" led to the adoption in February 2012 of a separate law "On special state bodies". As a result of the adoption of the document, special services officers were withdrawn from among the military personnel in a separate cohort. This helped to increase the effectiveness of their activities, including by differentiating the social security of employees of such services from the policy towards other servicemen
Counterintelligence and intelligence, have direct subordination to the president of the country, which also helps to avoid delaying the moment of making a decision.
Taking into account the fact that in recent years there has been an increase in threats from international terrorism and there has been instability in the region, such speed is of paramount importance both for preventive measures against potential terrorists and for the elimination of their possible consequences. In terms of the ability to respond to threats in a timely manner, the effectiveness of such actions depends on the speed of decision-making, among others and personally by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Reforming the national special services should allow Kazakhstan to maximize democratization of the system of ensuring national and legal security of the state, as well as guaranteeing citizens the observance and protection of their rights and freedoms.
According to experts, the constitutional reform, which is currently being conducted in Kazakhstan, allows the country to smoothly transform from a state with a presidential form of government to a presidential-parliamentary republic. At the same time, Kazakhstan managed to avoid both external and internal threats to destabilize the situation, which means that official Astana will continue its development without destructive cataclysms. And will be able to achieve the implementation of the planned plans, both in terms of economic growth and improving the welfare of citizens.